The research I did may still help others so I'll leave the site up, but my interests have taken me permanently away from HHO. Visit my YouTube channel at Download my latest HHO files at:

Blog Archive

Wednesday, December 3, 2008

The sweet spot

It appears that 2.15v is the sweet spot. At least for the 0N1 cell I tested today with a precision power supply that Greg loaned to me.
All the test were done at about 13.3 degrees C. No corrections were made for temperature. It only needed to be relevant to itself since it was all the same temperature.
The exposed surface of each plate is 4" x 10" with a 40 mil gap.

Not included was a test at 9v and 108 amps. It was more for fun than anything else. The efficiency dropped to about 1.5 mmw and I almost lost my battery cables doing that. It produced over 1.5LPM! Keep in mind it's just two plates. The temperature jumped up to 79 degrees C. According to D3's Faraday calculations I hit 128%. I'll admit it was a bit frantic and my measurements are probably of a bit.

I built this 0N1 cell to see if a single cell (at the sweet spot voltage) would work better than a cell with neutrals. Turns out they are both about the same. I had planned to build a true series cell with 6 individual cells in series. But I believe I've confirmed that the neutrals do just as good a job. I had always had my doubts because if you look at a wet cell most of the bubbles seem to come from the end plates.

Tuesday, December 2, 2008

Update to the License Plate Generator.

The gaskets have not worked out. The design is basically OK. 5.9 mmw was satisfying, but the gasket material is a problem. I'm going to try ceramics next. I found a source for dielectric ceramic paste. It is made to be fired onto 304 stainless, but 100ml costs $250.00. I'll try a prototype with ordinary pottery glaze before investing that much money. The problem is adhesion to the steel and the difference in coefficient of expansion

One other problem I've had is my passages are too small for a design that has all it's plumbing on one side. The rear plates become starved for fluids and literally fry the KOH to a biscuit. I have new plate design that will allow each plate gap to be supplied with it's own 1/4" plumbing. This will be a true series cell.

My idea is to make a tab at the top of each cell so that I can screw a fitting into the plate. There will be six tabs and six 1/4" connections so each cell is completely separate from the next. Basically I will build six separate cells and stack them together. They will share a plate between them so that the voltage is divided. I want to do this because I think it will work more efficiently than neutral plates, and there will be only one hole in each cell. This will get a ceramic collar and I plan to put a patch of ceramic directly across from the hole to make certain there is no current leakage.

If this one does not work out I think I will have run out of ideas.

Thursday, November 20, 2008

Problems revealed - License Plate Gen

I think I have it figured out. First the cell gets warm and softens the PVC. Next the gasket has nothing to push it against the plate in the area of the channel. So hydroxy gas is made under the gasket which tends to force it up. Add to that the venturi effect which sucks it up and it’s only a matter of time before the passages are closed.

The other problem is that I have put the fluid return and the gas outlet on the same side. All the gas made by the plates distal to this side, must fill and exit through the preceding channel. It puts a lot more flow in the front of the cell than the rear. In fact last chamber of the cell is being starved for fluid and drops a higher voltage. It’s all good at first, but when things begin to shut down the back chamber fries the small amount electrolyte; forming a crusty sponge of KOH from the dehydrated foam.

Running the fluids from front to back could rectify this. By placing the in and out on opposite sides would solve the problem but the overall dimension becomes thicker and the plumbing becomes more obvious, negating the idea to hide this unit behind the license plate. I may have to go to an epoxy encasement in order to create a passage from the last gap and return it back to a fitting on the front. This way all of the plumbing would continue to be straight through the bumper.

A second option would be to make the passages larger to allow the fluids to pass more easily. This seems like the easier method and I will try it first. After all, this works well for the EBN cell because the passage is large enough to allow all the fluids to flow and equalize easily. My passages are currently .04” x .25”. Perhaps I should widen the passage to .5”.

I also need to figure out a way to keep the shield gasket from blocking the holes. The suggestion to glue it down with gasket glue might work. I’ve also considered using Marine Goop which I’ve heard will adhere under these conditions. A small spot of the Marine Goop directly across from the hole could prevent current leakage while avoiding the use of a two layer gasket. I have not been able to find the Marine Goop locally so it will take some time to have it shipped to me.

Of course I could just compromise and go with an ordinary gasket and ordinary efficiency, but after coming this far I’m not willing to do that yet.

Thanks to those who have helped me get this far. It’s so close to becoming a reality. It just needs a little more engineering.

Bob Campbell

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

HHO Research Leaches

Boy have I got a ton to stu over with you … I’m feeling annoyed.

I’ve noticed people who share only enough, or a few commonly known facts to appear that they are part of the HHO community. All the while asking questions and perfecting their product. Never saying anything meaningful about how they accomplished unrealistic levels of efficiency or the mating of a protozoan. I’m sorry but if you aren’t sharing openly, what you have learned; you are a gloater, and a leach, and you are not part of the community of HHO researchers.

What bothers me is that it’s so subtle that no one seems to notice. Or maybe we are just being polite, and not say anything. But I hope when their products become available; no one buys them. Why should we support a leach? Or maybe one person will buy it and cut the damn thing open and show us on YouTube how our advise and research was used to develop their product.

Well I’ll get off the soapbox and wait for what ever comes my way. Just remember, people like Zero, Scarecrow, DMBing, LutherP, Mars, jdcmusicman, AllgoodAutomation, MarkJ30, johnaarons, sidyoung, david7900, sirHOAX, Craig Moore, I and a whole lot of other HHO researcher share for the good of the planet everything we know. Sure we may try to turn it into an income, but we put it out there for others to learn from and improve upon. We open source our knowledge.

I'm sorry but it just seems wrong to beg for answers in the forums and never share the results.

Bob Campbell

Friday, November 7, 2008

MMW Calculator Version 4.0

Just a quick note. Version 4.0 of the temperature compensating MMW calculator is now available. With the collaboration of LutherP40 the calculator has a whole new look and feel. It's much smaller, simpler to use and uses a lot less memory.

Luther took it from functional to fun!
The latest version will always be here.

Bob Campbell

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

Testing my stick cell

I have been testing my stick cell on my Mercury Tracer. Without HHO I got 23.75 MPG with HHO I get 25.31 MPG. This test was done over 292.2 miles. It's not much gain but at least it is going in the right direction. Next I'll try to retard the timing and maybe and EFIE. I'm building my License Plate cell and incorporating the Mars Gasket. I hope to break 6 mmw with this cell.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Version 2c of the MMW calculator

I had a few suggestions and made the changes to my xls file. Here's the link to my latest Excel file that calculates mmw and compensates for temperature/gas expansion. Stay tuned there may be even more improvements to even more accurately figure mmw.

I will always keep the latest version of the MMW Calculator at:

This Excel file works in Open Office.
Open Office is an Open Source program and free of charge. It can be downloaded at

I also wrote this spreadsheet in Google. I don't have a clue about how to share it though. Ask Mar1952 about the Google spreadsheet.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

The new efficiency standard!

Occasionally a great idea comes along that you just can’t ignore. We are about to see a change in the standard of our efficiency data.

Mars1952 has done it again. Here is a post by Mars that will explain what is soon to become he standard of HHO efficiency testing.

For an Excel spreadsheet that calculates this new mmw go to:
If you want to factor in the temp of the HHO into the MMW you need to measure the temp of the gas as it flows into the meter. The formula is:V1/T1 = V2/T2 V = volume measuredT = temperature in degrees KelvinMeasure the gas temp in Celsius (or Fahrenheit and convert to C) To convert Celsius to Kelvin add 273 to the Celsius measurement. (If you want to be precise add 273.15)
Let's say you made 1000ml of HHO @ 38C (100F) using 166.7 watts (MMW=6.0)Later you make 1000ml of HHO@ 20C (68F) using the same 166.7 watts (MMW=6.0)Obviously gas expands when it is heated so you made more gas in the second example. To compare the two you need to convert them to the same temperature. Either convert them both to a standard temp (Faraday used 25C) or in this case we will convert the first example to 20C.
Plug in 1000 for V1, 38+273 for T1 and plug in 20+273 for T2. Now solve for V2 and get 942.1.So converting the first example to 20C yields an MMW of 5.65.Of coarse we have not considered the difference in water vapor.I just looked this up last night in my wife’s old chemistry book. If anyone knows a better way please PM me.MarsWhat do you think of it? I think that we should use 25C as a standard temp.Mars

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Phobos Gasket

Phobos is Mars closest moon. My new gasket, influenced by the design of the Mars gasket is called the Phobos gasket. This is a retrofit gasket for EBN style and other dry cells with holes bored straight through.

There are two gaskets that cover the holes with a protuberance from the side of the standard gasket shape gasket; which was designed only to seal the edges. These protuberances would have a slit similar to my version of the Mars gasket to allow the exchange of electrolyte and gases through the existing holes in the plates. Between these two gaskets would be a third gasket made of 6-mil plastic with the same shape. This center gasket will block the current leakage from the edges of the holes. This three-layer gasket would double the plate spacing but I have found a 20-mil PVC pond liner that could reduce that thickness to a total of 46-mils.

Mars Gasket is Astronomical Success!

Mars Gasket is a Sky High Achievment!

Consistant efficiency of 5.7 to 5.97.

This is the future of dry cell technology.


Thursday, October 23, 2008

All About Stainless Steel by Bob Campbell

There are over 1500 types of stainless steel. Each having it’s own unique quality. In our applications of electrolysis we are manly concerned with the non-corrosive qualities of stainless steel and therefore we have come to use either 304 or 316l stainless steel. The letter “l” designates a low level of carbon.

One of the most often asked questions is “does stainless steel contain iron, and why is it not magnetic?” The answer is yes. Stainless steel has an iron content of 58% - 69%. The magnetic permeability of the Alloys 316 and 317L in the annealed condition is generally less than 1.02 at 200 H (oersteds). It is essentually not magnetic because the crystalline properties of the alloy change the temperature at which the steel ceases to be magnetic. This temperature is called the Curie point. For example iron looses it ferromagnetic quality above 768°C. 300 series stainless steel is an alloy referred to as gamma phase iron or austenite stainless steel. There are however some stainless steels that are magnetic. These are referred to as martensite stainless steel.

One of the other concerns we should have is the electrical resistance of stainless steel 316 has 74.0 Microhm-cm. and 317 has 79 Microhm-cm. When used with high amperage this resistance can create a great deal of heat.Our application demands that we use austenite stainless steel because we want the iron to be locked into the crystalline structure of the alloy so that it will not corrode. When nickel or manganese is added, the austine structure of iron is stabilized and the crystalline structure binds the iron in the alloy and does not allow it to oxidize.

The 300 series of stainless steel contains a maximum of 0.15% carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and enough nickel and/or manganese to retain an austenitic structure. The chromium forms an extremely thin, less than 0.0000001-inch thick, protective film of chromium oxide, which prevents further corrosion.

The next question is why do we condition our cells? The conditioning involves a process called passivation. This is not generally a process to be undertaken by laymen. It involves very dangerous chemicals.

The ASTM A380 describes passivation as "the removal of exogenous iron or iron compounds from the surface of stainless steel by means of a chemical dissolution, most typically by a treatment with an acid solution that will remove the surface contamination, but will not significantly affect the stainless steel itself." Further more the ASTM A380 goes on to say "the chemical treatment of stainless steel with a mild oxidant, such as a nitric acid solution, for the purpose of enhancing the spontaneous formation of the protective passive film."

So there you have it. We want to do this to remove free iron left over from the machining process. Passivation is a cleaning process, which also provides a thin protective film.

The use of grinding wheels, sanding materials or wire brushes made of iron, iron oxide, steel, or zinc may contaminate the stainless-steel surface. Even the use of a grinding wheel that was previously used on other metals can cause contamination. If you sand blast your plates be sure to use iron-free silica or alumina sand. Stress relieving, annealing, drawing or other hot-forming processes can push contaminants deeper into surface and make it impossible to remove with passivation. Therefore I do not recommend sanding your plates.

Cleaning is done by first removing any oil, metal or organic material from the surface. For our purposes a solvent cleaning and soaking for 30 minutes in a 5% by weight solution of sodium hydroxide at 160 to 180°F will do the job. It is very important that this cleaning be done first otherwise the acid will react with the greases and prevent the passivation process.

Next rinse the plates and then soak the plates in a 10% by weight solution of citric acid for 30 at 150F. While nitric-acid-based solutions can be used, citric acid passivation is the preferred solution because it avoids the use of mineral acids, and the disposal problems associated with mineral acids. Citric acid is considered environmentally friendly. It is important not to use excessive bath temperature, or exceed the recommended immersion time. Also be careful with contamination. Citric acid is more prone to “flash attack” than nitric acid but in my opinion the safety issues outweigh this drawback and can be controlled by following these rules. Some citric acid products contain corrosion inhibitors and wetting that reportedly reduce flash attack.

Flash attack also occurs when the passitating solution is contaminated with high levels of chlorides. Chlorides in tap water are usually low enough. It is recommended that water with 50 ppm or less be used for rising but several hundred ppm can usually be tolerated. If you are concerned, you may wish to obtain an analysis from your water company.

Flash attack is evident by a heavily etched or darkened surface instead of the desired oxide film with a shiny, clean, corrosion-resisting surface that passivation is designed to optimize. Sodium dichromate can also be added to the rinse to reduce the chance of flash attack After Passivating the plates rinse and soak once more in a clean sodium hydroxide solution for 30 minutes to neutralize the acid then and dry. That’s it. Now your plates are ready. After all this work you will not want to touch those plates so be sure to wear clean gloves.

Bob Campbell

I love the smell of hho in the morning.

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Throwing in the towel on the Campbell Gasket

I’m throwing in the towel on the Campbell Gasket. I can’t make these gaskets thin enough and I fully endorse the Mars Gasket. I can’t get enough current, and the efficiency dropped so far that there was no reason to even try measuring it.

I just tested the Campbell gasket with thicker 80-mil acrylic side gaskets. The addition of 80 thousandths (120 VS. 200 mils) caused my amps to drop from 5A to .5A. The decrease in efficiency when I replaced the side of my Campbell Gaskets appears to indicate that closer spacing produces a better efficiency.

The Mars gasket may also find improvement if a thinner gasket can be built, but I have a great deal of faith in it. I’m currently building a cell with the Mars gasket using a 40-mil PVC material. The three layers will total 120-mils. EBN has had good results with 125 mils but they are now using a 62-mil gaskets.

I think I’ve found a source of 20-mil PVC pond liner. Three layers of that will be 60-mils and closer to what I want, so I’ll also try that and compare the results. I think the Mars Gasket has the best shot at success.

Since Mars and I have slightly different approaches it will be interesting to compare notes. If we both agreed on everything we would be doing the exact same research.

I’m grateful for those who are sharing what they are doing. I feel like we are all part of a team working toward a common goal and by sharing our research we all benefit. It also seems to me that lately the research has become much more scientific and advances are following suit.

Bob Campbell

The Mars Gasket

The Campbell Gasket was tested. The 40-mil PVC shower pan liner proved to be too flexible and I am in the process of reconstructing the cell with new Campbell Gaskets made of acrylic.

Today I found that Mars1952 on YouTube has been building a cell with a similar concept. I’ve included a picture of what I perceive his design to be - with some of my own embellishments. The gasket design that Mars1952 has come up with is called the Mars Gasket

I want to build a cell with the Mars Gasket to see how well it performs. I believe his design is superior to mine, in that it is much easier to construct. It is thinner and less expensive. If both work equally well; which I believe they will. I will have to concede and let the Campbell Gasket fade into infamy as a valiant attempt to control current leakage.

Saturday, October 18, 2008

Campbell Gasket

Having just invented something cool I’d like to give it a name. I’d like to call it a “Campbell Gasket” but maybe it needs something that describes the function.

I thought of “Ported Gasket” and “Channel Gasket” but those already exist. I could not find any use of the term “Piped Gasket” so it could be called a “Piped Gasket” but I like Campbell Gasket so that's what I'm going with.

I hope to construct my first cell using a Campbell Gasket this weekend. Look for a video at about the new Campbell Gasket.

Bob Campbell
I love the smell of HHO in the morning

Thursday, October 16, 2008

New idea for no leak gasket

The blue shows the center layer of this three-layer gasket. A gasket would be glued to a larger rectangular gasket (yellow).

The Plates are purple.

The holes in the bottom and top gaskets would line up with holes in a non conductive spacer the same thickness as the plates.

The square spacers would also be glued to the larger outside rectangular gasket, and another large gasket would be glued over the top to create one three-layer gasket.

The top layer is not depicted in this drawing for a better view. If 40 mil PVC were used it would make a 120 mil gasket. It would be nice to find a thinner material.

Bob Campbell
I love the smell of HHO in the morning!

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

No possible current leakage cell

I don't know if this is possible but here is my idea for a No Holes Cell, with no possible current leakage.

I'd love to hear your opinions

This rectangle gasket (blue) seals the entire edge of the plate (yellow) If the gasket material were very stiff, and maybe 100 mils thick. two intersecting holes could be cut to allow the fluids to pass through the edges and between the plates. The holes would create a "T". While this drawing shows the holes on the side, It would be most advantageous to put them in the top and bottom of the gaskets.

There is other work being done that I think is important to note. Watch the video linked below to see what David7900 is doing on YouTube.

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

Download my latest designs

Download my latest designs of the Licence Plate Generator at

If you have suggestions I'd lik to hear from you.

Bob Campbell

Friday, October 3, 2008

Without temperature, the data is fiction

This video shows a cell producing 500 ml in 21 seconds at 14.2V and 6.1A. This would lead one to belive that I've achieved 16.5 mmw.

It's important that all documented videos include accurate data about Voltage, Current, Volume and Temperature. Otherwise the claims are just fiction.

This looks like I'm making HHO at about 16.5 mmw. In reality it's mostly steam.

When posting videos about your experiments, please include Volts, Amps, LPM and Temperature.

Really interesting sites suggested by Greg T

Thanks to suggestions by Greg, I’ve become aware of a wealth of information about many types of alterative energy. To begin with I’d like to direct you to a site that could take weeks to explore. If you dare - go to
Warning – This is so interesting; you may not surface for a very long time.

Recently a man in South Africa has placed faith in himself and the guidance of Bob Boyce. He is taking his audience on an adventure to recreate the Boyce Cell. Watkykjy has spent over $50,000 on this project and has documented each step for all to learn from. His direct communication with Bob Boyce adds insight that so many have wished for. Currently he is producing HHO at better then twice Faraday. By the way his name means “What are you looking for?” Thanks Greg this is a great story!

Bob Campbell

Tuesday, September 30, 2008

7.00 mmw and above?

Recently several HHO researchers have broken through the 7.00 mmw mark. It’s an inspiration for those of us who are still producing HHO at around 5.50 mmw. Even though no one has come forward to reveal their precious knowledge I think we need to be grateful that they have shown the possibility. How many variables can there be? Seriously if you can think of something I’ve missed, please comment.

Plate spacing
Surface prep
Leakage (holes in a dry cell and edges in a wet cell)
Type of stainless steel
Running temperature
Wire size

Sorry I can’t think of any thing else. Visit my Playlist of over 7 mmw videos.

What is it that these people have done right? How far can we go?

Bob Campbell
I love the smell of HHO in the morning

Monday, September 29, 2008

1.8% return of energy. Hey that's not bad!

Of course the object of HHO on demand is not to create energy to run your car. It's an additive to improve the ignition of the gasoline. The naysayers always want to reference to the law of physics that says you cannot get more energy out than you put in, but they have missed the point.

Now with that said, here is a very interesting experiment. How much return do we get from the energy we use to create HHO.

It's not really important to know, but this experiment shows that even with a respectable mmw of over 5.00 a return of only 1.8 percent can be expected. I wanted to mention it here because it is an interesting experiment. Thank you AllgoodAutomation for all your hard work.

Saturday, September 27, 2008

Peter A. Lindemann, D.Sc.

I'm wondering what any of you above average, highly intelligent, creative people who read my blog have learned about the experiments done by Peter A. Lindemann, D.Sc.

In case you have never heard of him, Lindemann has written several books, each costing about $30.00. I'm tempted to buy his books, but wonder if he shows anything other than speculation. Some of his topics sound fantastic; maybe a bit too fantastic. Here are some of his titles

Tesla's Radiant Energy
Teal's Magnipulsion Engine
Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity

I've looked into American inventor Bob Teal. I have a video by Teal about his Magnipulsion Engine in my YouTube Playlist.

This type of information often lingers on for years with nothing ever coming to fruition. It's been a disappointment to me many times and makes me wary of these claims. Bob Teal claims to have contracts with several auto manufactures so maybe we will see something really great happen this time.

Lindemann's books can be purchased at the site below.

Bob Campbell

MMW Efficiency and Voltage

The ideal voltage of about 2.5 volts between plates has long been established. But it's nice to see it proven . This is the second time I've referenced Marks work today. I'd like to commend him on his diligences and the good work he has been doing down under.

Here are links to two videos by markj30 that clearly shows how mmw is related to plate voltage.

Bob Campbell
I love the smell of HHO in the morning

304 vs 316 Stainless Steel

Is it worth spending a little extra on 316 Stainless Steel?

markj30 has done some interesting tests that demonstrate that 316 is the way to go.

For a look at his experiment go to

I love the smell of HHO in the morning

Thursday, September 25, 2008

License Plate Electrolyzer

This is a sketch of my latest idea for an electrolyzer. The advantage would be that it hides comfortably behind the license plate. This would allow easy access as well as an advantageous position whereby the electrolyzer would be placed at a low level on the car. By keeping the electrolyzer low, the bubbler/reservoir would be easy to place at a higher location within the engine compartment.

By using 10 mil gaskets and 20 gauge 316 stainless steel the total thickness of the electrolyzer would be less than 2 inches thick. The plate where the plumbing is connected may have to be in the range of 03 gauge to accept the threads. The terminal plates could be made with tabs that are bent toward each other and overlapped to create a terminal bar. A terminal bolt would be inserted through the overlapping terminal bars.

In the drawing on the left, the positive and negative poles would need to be reversed so that the plate nearest the car is negative. This is shown correctly in the drawing on the right.

I’m afraid I’ve got a lot of construction work to on my schedule right now and may not be able to build this little gem for a couple of months. As always I want to put this idea out into the HHO community as open source and hope someone will go ahead and proceed with this plan. In my not so humble opinion I think this is a great design.

I'd like to hear your ideas and comments.

I love the smell of HHO in the morning.
Bob Campbell

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Bob Boyce - e-mail to Sterling

Bob Boyce tells about how he built an electrolizer to split hydrogen and oxygen using harmonic frequencies.

----- Original Message -----
From: "Bob Boyce"
Sent: Monday, October 07, 2002 8:38 PM
Subject: GTcontact

Hello there

I just read your response to the message from someone asking why you're promoting a fraud (Tilley) and I must commend you on your response. There are a lot of closed-minded and narrow-minded people out there, most of whom were highly educated in traditional schooling methodology taught at most of the universities and colleges throughout the world. They get this doctrine shoved down their throats that if it's not documented in books and/or upheld by popular theory, then it's just not possible. Any attempt to demonstrate such technology usually falls on deaf ears and blind eyes because they refuse to adjust their thinking to accept that maybe something may be possible after all.

I learned the hard way about how society treats those that dare to do something different. I'm not seeking publicity or recognition for any research I did, just wanted to privately relate my experiences with you and ask that you please not publish or share this with anyone.

I had an electronics business down in south Florida where I owned and sponsored a small boat race team through my business starting in 1988. We had a machine shop out back of my business for doing engine work, and I worked on engines for other racers and a local minisub research outfit that was building surface running drone type boats for the DEA.

I delved into hydrogen research where I was building small electrolyzer type units that used distilled water mixed with an electrolyte and I would resonate the plates for optimal conversion efficiency. I discovered that with the right frequencies, I was able to generate monoatomic hydrogen and oxygen, which when recombined, produces about 4 times the energy output of normal diatomic hydrogen and oxygen molecules since the process of combustion does not have to break apart the molecules first before recombining into water vapor. Diatomic hydrogen requires about 4% to air to produce the same power as gasoline, while monoatomic requires slightly less than 1% to air for the same power.

The only drawback was storage at pressure causes the monoatoms to start joining into diatomic pairs, and the mixture weakens, so it must be produced on-demand and consumed right away. I used modified LP carbs on the boat engines to deal with using vapor fuel. I even converted an old chrysler with a slant six engine to run on the hydrogen setup and we tested it in the shop.

I never published anything of what I was working on, and we always stated that our boats were running on hydrogen fuel, which was allowed, to avoid any controversy at the races. It wasn't until many years later that I found out what I had stumbled upon was already discovered and known as "Browns Gas", and there were companies out there selling the equipment and plans to make it. I had never tried to market anything, but I was plagued with trouble ever since I did the conversion to the old Chrysler and did a few test runs on it in the shop.

My shop, which had never had any major crime problems before, suddenly was getting broken into, and pieces of equipment related to the hydrogen project were getting vandalized or stolen. I thought it might be that one of the guys that worked for me might have leaked something to someone and they were trying to either steal the technology or stop me from working on it. I ended up shutting down the research, getting out of it all, converting the boat engines back to racing fuel and selling off the race boats. The break-ins stopped and I had no further trouble up until I totally closed the business and retired in 1991.

I was struck by lightning in 1995 and in 1997 I moved out of Florida, the lightning capital. I am now crippled with arthritis (which is common amongst lightning strike survivors), and recently I developed congestive heart failure/pulmonary edema. I may be weak in body but I am determined to try to stay as active as I can. I am currently stripping down an old 1984 dodge aries with only 29K original miles so I can convert it over to electric operation. I have been seeking all information I can find to be able to apply this unique charging arrangement that Tilley is using and to find out what type of electric motor would be best to use with it. I'm in the eastern TN area in the mountains so it must have enough power to climb the uphill grades and hopefully be able to regenerate on the downhill grades. So far I have found very little information on this. Any help you could provide to steer me in the right direction would be appreciated.

Thank you
Bob Boyce

Part II

Q. Would be willing to post your plans? I would be glad to host them for you if you are willing. (Sterling)

From: "Bob Boyce"
To: "Sterling D. Allan"
Sent: Tuesday, October 08, 2002 3:34 PM
Subject: Re: from the trenches -- one man's experience


I doubt if I can find the drawings for them after this long but the device is fairly simple to duplicate. It requires a lot of plates made of 316 stainless so it will withstand the more exotic electrolytes that are more efficient, a plastic box to contain the plates, 1/8" spacers to keep the rows of plates apart, the electrolyte, and an adjustable frequency modified psuedo-sinewave inverter can be used for the drive electronics. I used 61 of the 6" square plates to give a large surface area and scoured the surfaces with coarse sandpaper in an "X" pattern to give a fine crosshatch grain to add fine sharp points. I found this improved efficiency as well. The top of the box had two threaded ports, a small one for injecting replacement distilled water, and a larger one for extracting the vapor.

Under the top cover sitting on top of the plates I cut a piece of plastic matting to prevent sloshing. It's very important to keep the total electrolyte level at or below the tops of the plates to prevent voltage from bypassing any cells and creating excessive water vapor. I placed a 5 PSI cutoff switch in a tee on the water injection port that shut the drive electronics down when the pressure in the unit hit 5 PSI.

This allowed the unit to be able to supply on demand without building up too much pressure in low demand situations. I built a bubbler from a large home cartridge type water filter housing to prevent any backfire from traveling back up the fuel feed to the unit. Without some sort of bubbler you run the risk of the unit exploding if a flame front from the engine flows back to it. I have seen copper mesh screens designed for welding gasses offered for use on plans I seen years later online for similar devices, but hydrogen has a much higher flame propagation speed so the copper mesh may not be reliable enough to risk using. Place the unit close to the engine to limit the amount of monoatom loss to diatomic recombination and feed the fuel vapor to the vapor portion of an LP carb system.

The carb will have to be modified for hydrogen use (different mixture rate than propane) and adjusted with the system running for best performance. The best electrolytes I found to use were sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. While sodium hydroxide works well, it's much easier to get (red devil lye in most department stores) than the much harder to get but slightly more efficient potassium hydroxide. Whatever you do, be very careful of materials! Make absolutely sure they are compatible with the electrolyte used. Never use glass containers for mixing or storing potassium hydroxide!

I never had the chance to drive the test Chrysler on the road with this system. I had the rear end up on jackstands and ran the engine under no-load conditions in drive just to dial the system in and get an idea of how well the engine held up on the hydrogen fuel. I was going to get into more testing and eventually road testing but the first break-in happened. The control electronics unit was stolen and the chamber with the plates was smashed. I had 3 boxes built from Plexiglas so I was able to rebuild that again, and I replaced the control electronics with a modified inverter since most of the experimenting had been done and I had a pretty good idea of what I was doing and needed for frequencies and waveform by this time. I didn't even get to finish the re-assembly when the second break-in occurred.

This time they took the new chamber with plates before it was even finished AND the modified inverter, and they smashed the last remaining Plexiglas box that was on the bench. It was at this point that I gave up. I pieced the remaining Plexiglas box back together with solvent and set plates into it (I had enough plates cut for all 3 prototypes) but I never tried putting electrolyte into it for fear of leaks. Since I no longer had a working unit, and it was obvious that someone did not want me to continue with this research, I converted my race boats back to racing fuel carbs and eventually sold them off. I had spent many thousands of dollars in materials and farmed out machine work that I did not have the equipment to do and just walked away from it all.

I put the repaired prototype away in storage for safekeeping in case I ever decided to make a new box for it some day and I'm glad I did. We had one final break-in and nothing was touched, guess they couldn't find anything of interest, and had no more break-ins since, up until I retired and closed the shop. I brought the repaired prototype with me when I moved. Maybe I can find where I stored it and take a few pictures of it for you with my el-cheapo digital camera. I have no desire to start up with this project again. I prefer an all electric approach.

Bob Boyce

Part III

From: "Bob Boyce"
To: "Sterling D. Allan, Coordinating Managing Director"
Sent: Thursday, October 10, 2002 2:19 PM
Subject: Re: Bob Boyce info

Hello Sterling

Since your posting I have been deluged with emails asking for more information, which I have tried to respond to individually. Most are pretty much the same questions, frequency, waveform, and physical layout. I will try to clear up some of these points.

The unit does not use "normal brute force" electrolysis when operating in high efficiency mode. It relies mainly on a chemical reaction that takes place between the electrolyte used and the metal plates, which is maintained by electrical energy applied and stimulated into higher efficiency by the application of multiple harmonic resonances which help to "tickle" the molecules apart. I coined the term "electrochemical reaction" to describe the process and I called the chamber an "electrochemical reactor".

I used multiple cells in series to lower the voltage per cell and limit the current flow in order to reduce water vapor production. It relies on the large surface area of the total number of cells to get the required volume of fuel vapor output. In my first prototype of this design, I used a custom built controller/driver that gave me a lot of adjustability so I could experiment with multiple frequencies, voltages, and waveforms individually and compare performance.

The result was a pattern of 3 interwoven square waves rich in harmonics that produced optimal efficiency. When I had the basics figured out I realized that I could just replace the custom controller/driver unit with a modified inverter much easier than building one from scratch. When the original controller was stolen at the first break-in, I then experimented using a 300 watt pseudo-sine wave inverter that had been modified so the base frequency could be adjusted between 700 and 800 hz. The stepped sine wave output was fed through a bridge rectifier which turned each stepped sine wave into two positive stepped half waves.

Each of these half waves had 8 steps, so a single cycle was turned into 16 steps. The resulting output, while not consisting of intermixed square waves, was still rich in harmonics, and I found it much easier to dial in resonance than trying to tune 3 separate frequencies. The frequency range can change depending on the number of steps in the pseudo-sine wave of the inverter you choose since not all inverters are created equal. The desired effect is caused by the multiple harmonic resonances in the inverter output at higher frequencies. You will know when you hit resonance by the dramatic increase in vapor output. The frequency does vary a bit as to what electrolyte is used, the specific gravity of the electrolyte solution (how much electrolyte to water is in the mix), electrolyte temperature, water purity, etc.

Keep in mind that my electrochemical reactor tank was large enough to hold 61 plates of 316 grade stainless that were 6" X 6" each, spaced 1/8" apart, to create 60 cells in series, with the 130 VDC power from the inverter, through the bridge rectifier, applied to the end plates only. That gave 4,320 square inches of surface area, plenty of surface area to produce enough fuel for an automotive engine. The best electrolyte I found for efficiency was potassium hydroxide, and the electrolyte level must be kept below the tops of the plates to prevent any current from bypassing the plates and creating excess water vapor through heating. Distilled water was used to prevent contamination of the electrolyte which would result in reduced performance and efficiency.

I never finished the second unit for any engine run tests because the shop was broken into again and the second prototype and inverter were both stolen. The only testing I had managed to complete before the theft was the tweaking of gas flow while dialing in the inverter frequency. When the theft occurred, the pressure switch and water pump were not yet installed and the water injection port was blocked off with a 316 grade stainless plug. If the thieves tried to use it as it was, the pressure would most likely have built up to the point of the chamber exploding from overpressure, since there was no feedback installed yet to shut down the applied power at 5 PSI. I certainly would not liked to have been around when that much hydrogen and oxygen as well as extremely nasty electrolyte let loose!

Now on to the mechanical details. On my unit I had 316 grade stainless wires tack welded to the tops of the end plates, and tack welded to 316 grade stainless bolts that were through holes in the ends of the container, with rubber o-ring gaskets inside and out, above liquid level. If I remember right cost was over $1000 on the 4' x 8' 316 grade stainless steel sheets and having them sheared into the 6" x 6" plates by the vendor. That was for enough plates to build 3 prototypes plus some extras to make up for the rejects that are typically unavoidable when trying to obtain precision cut material from a supplier. Inverter output was to be switched on and off to the plates by a 5 PSI pressure switch on the side of a tee at the water injection port.

There was a PVC spray bar attached on the inside of the chamber to the water injection port with tiny holes drilled along its length on the underside to supply replacement water evenly to the cells when the water pump was switched on. A backflow prevention valve on top of the tee would keep the gas from flowing back into the water lines. It was originally planned to add an electrolyte level sensor arrangement to automate the addition of replacement water but that point was never reached. Water consumption was fairly slow so it was not hard to keep track of manually.

There was a mat of interwoven plastic fibers (air conditioner filter material) cut and fitted on top of the plates to help prevent sloshing. Make sure to use plastic and not fiberglass mat, which could cause a severe reaction with some electrolytes, like potassium hydroxide. I made up this crude top view sketch with notepad. Each horizontal bar is a plate and the | + and - are the container walls except for the | in the ends which denote the electrical connections from the end plates to the outside of the chamber. You may have to paste it into notepad for the ends to look right.

(pos) plate
| #
|__________________|____________________| 1
|_______________________________________| 2
|_______________________________________| 3
|_______________________________________| 4
|_______________________________________| 5
|_______________________________________| 6
|_______________________________________| 7
|_______________________________________| 8
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Bob Boyce

Friday, September 19, 2008

Ford will not let America have it's 65 MPG car

Ford Can Get You 65 MPG -- In Europe
stumble digg reddit news trust BusinessWeek | David Kiley | September 8, 2008 12:36 PM

If ever there was a car made for the times, this would seem to be it: a sporty subcompact that seats five, offers a navigation system, and gets a whopping 65 miles to the gallon. Oh yes, and the car is made by Ford Motor (F), known widely for lumbering gas hogs.

Ford's 2009 Fiesta ECOnetic goes on sale in November. But here's the catch: Despite the car's potential to transform Ford's image and help it compete with Toyota Motor (TM) and Honda Motor (HMC) in its home market, the company will sell the little fuel sipper only in Europe. "We know it's an awesome vehicle," says Ford America President Mark Fields. "But there are business reasons why we can't sell it in the U.S." The main one: The Fiesta ECOnetic runs on diesel.

Automakers such as Volkswagen (VLKAY) and Mercedes-Benz (DAI) have predicted for years that a technology called "clean diesel" would overcome many Americans' antipathy to a fuel still often thought of as the smelly stuff that powers tractor trailers. Diesel vehicles now hitting the market with pollution-fighting technology are as clean or cleaner than gasoline and at least 30% more fuel-efficient.

Read the full story here

::Read more automotive coverage at the Huffington Post

Thursday, September 18, 2008

Q and A

Q: What is the model # of your Sears 12V batter charger?

A: The Sears battery charger is the 225 Amp model. It has a small air compressor built in and cost about $130.

Q: How did you come to settle on the dry cell model? Was the wet plate set up just not cutting it in the efficiency area?

A: I like dry cells because space is a problem in most cars, and this seems to be the most compact design. It also solves the problem of current leakage, as the edges of the plates are not in a solution. By avoiding the current leakage at the edges; a higher efficiency is achieved.

Q: Are you currently selling the long dry HHO cell?

A: I am doing this research in order to market a product, but I'm not ready to sell anything yet. If I were to produce this cell for sale I would run the compression bolts through the gaskets and the plates rather than outside of the plates. This is more expensive to produce, but I think it would provide a higher quality product. I have had no problem with fluid leaks, but going through the gasket would make it even more certain not to have any problems. I would also use steel end plates in order to save about 1/2" of space.

I made this cell to fit into the bumper, or in front of the radiator of most cars, but I wanted to be sure that the convection would still cause the electrolyte to flow with such a low profile. Convection does cause the fluid to flow, but there is a slight advantage to tilting the cell so that the outlet is slightly higher. The best mmw I have archived with this cell is 5.76mmw in a vertical position.

I'm over loaded with remodel work as a building contractor right now, but in a few weeks I hope to have the time to run tests again. I have some interesting experiments in mind. I want to run three different experiments. Keeping the other variables constant I want to experiment with the effects of temperature, levels of KOH, and plate spacing to see how each change affects efficiency. I'll be posting the results right here.

Bob Campbell

Wednesday, September 17, 2008

Bob Campbells Videos

These are videos I've posted on YouTube. My channel is

Wednesday, September 10, 2008

Conductivity and Resistivity of Water

Below is a link to scientific research done on the conductivity of water at various temperatures. It's difficult to follow if you are not familiar with these principals of math, but the general idea that water becomes more conductive at higher temperatures is easy enough to understand. I post this here only as a reference for those science minded individuals who are inclined to study and experiment with these properties. - Bob Campbell

"The most accurate values to date were determined for conductivity of water from 0-100°C, permitting new determination of high-temperature hydroxide ion equivalent conductance. These values were incorporated into a fundamental water coefficient table including hydroxide and hydrogen ion mobilities, water ionization constant, density, conductivity, and resistivity. The conductivity/resistivity values were measured with a multiple-pass, closed, recirculating flow conductivity system, with improved multiple resistance temperature device measurement, and improved analysis of temperature and impurity effects. An accurate conductivity knowledge is necessary to understand water-limiting processes and to facilitate the analysis of trace ionic impurities in water."

Truman S. Light,a Stuart Licht,b,*,z Anthony C. Bevilacqua,c and Kenneth R. Morashc


Monday, September 8, 2008

The Resistance of Stainless Steel Plates

I brought this point up before. How does the resistance of the plates affect the efficiency of a cell? After watching a video by markj30 I knew he could help. He has built a long thin cell with connections at both the top and bottom. Here is the message I sent to him and his reply. I think this topic still deservses more attention.

My Message to Mark:
Considering the higher resistance of stainless steel. I'm wondering what would happen if I introduced voltage at both ends as you have. I'm hoping you will do that test for me since it appears that you could easily remove the leads from one end. If the plates had even .1 Ohms of resistance that would consume quite a bit of power as heat at 20 amps. I see this as a way of making a significant improvement in my design and would appreciate your assistance. Bob Campbell

Marks reply:
“I did not notice any real difference in MMW with in the connections at the top, bottom, or both. However I did not fully test to see whether I could draw more amps with both the top and bottom connected, having two leads instead of one however should help with overheating problems due to too much draw. If I come across anything interesting in this area I will let you know. The more efficient the unit, the harder it is to get the amps up, but you probably already knew that.”

Saturday, September 6, 2008

Conclusion To The Power Supply Dilemma.

In my previous YouTube video, I thought it was the pulsed current throwing my meters off and distorting the data. But Zero said “Well, I don't know if it's distorted or not. Think about it. Just because we're hitting it with peak voltage that’s higher than the RMS value, the RMS value is still the same. Wattage calculations remain the same.”

OK, now I’m thinking – how can I get my car to act like the charger? After all the production was higher and the efficiency much better.

Hmmmm… I think on this, and talk to my friend Richard who knows about car electronics and he says, “Your car has an alternator with diodes, it also delivers a pulsed output”.

The alternator operates like the battery charger. The diodes send a pulsed current to the battery. The idea that I needed a laboratory power supply with perfectly filtered DC output was wrong. I’m believe a battery charger with a battery will simulate the power system of a car better than a steady lab quality power supply.

Links to the YouTube videos:

HHO Test - Power Supply v.s. Battery

Re: HHO Test - Power Supply v.s. Battery

Re: Re: HHO Test - Power Supply v.s. Battery

Possible Breakthrough Stumbled Upon

Supplying similar voltage from a power supply vs. two batteries results in widely differing results. I made a YouTube video, intending to show the importance of a good power supply. But the unexplained results are most likely due to a pulsed DC voltage.

At first I thought this was causing my meters to read incorrectly. I asked Zero Fossil Fuel to comment and he pointed out that RMS values are valid. So then perhaps this is something to look into. Below are actual results of my tests.

Charger Only:
123.7F, 12.3V 14.15A 1LPM = 5.74mmw
Battery Only:
122.4F, 12.2V 5.97A .33PLM = 4.53mmw

Spiking the pulse voltage may be a way of increasing mmw.

Notice that twice the amperage is being drawn from the Battery Charger and that the mmw is 26% higher!

More research needs to be done with this idea.

Thursday, September 4, 2008

Battery Charger and Power Supply too?

I’m disappointed with my pursuit to set up an HHO lab. I like to think outside of the box, and usually I’m pretty creative. I thought I could do it without spending a lot of money. So today I was telling a friend how great my new battery charger is. I even made a video to show the results obtained from battery vs. the big honking battery charger I just got. Look at my mmw!

But I was left with some serious questions about why these results should differ. Ohms law is the law. And my results flew in the face of it. Why? …. I was not able to get it off my mind. Then I thought about how the battery charger was getting its power from an AC source. So I stuck my AC Amp meter on the DC output and found that it measured a current. Oh No! My DC supply is pulsed. This has got to be why the amperage differs from the solid DC battery source. I’m back to square one or back to using my truck alternator for a power supply. Hmmm how about an electric motor to turn a car alternator…

Bob Campbell

Wednesday, September 3, 2008

Update to Power Supplies

I wrote to Seboy2000 on YouTube today and he tells me that he is happy with his 550w ATT power supply. He's using it to supply 12v. If you are happy with that voltage I suppose it's good but I believe HHO demands a higher more realistic voltage for accurate tests.

I'm now using a 225 Amp battery charger from Sears. It was $130. There is plenty of amps and the voltage stays steady. There are several settings that provide voltage between 11.5 and 14.4 volts. I have to hunt around a bit to find a setting that gives me the voltage I desire as all of the voltages shift from session to sesion. but I'm always able to find something close to 13.6 volts.

To use it in the 'No Brains' mode you need to set the timer from between 5 minutes up to 135 min or HOLD. This is the best I could come up with and I'm happy! I think the price is reasonable when you compare it to everything else that's available.

Sunday, August 31, 2008

Affordable Amp Meters

I ordered a clamp on AC/DC Amp Meter from Sears a few days ago. The clamp on meter is more versatile but it costs $60.00 - close to $80 with shipping. For an HHO test station the Fuse Buddy would look very nice and it's one-fourth the price.

Here's a link if you should wish to order one. It's called a Fuse Buddy and it's only $16.00 +S&H.

If you want a multi meter with clamp on AC/DC amp meter at a good price take a look at this:
Craftsman Digital Clamp-On Ammeter - Sears item# 03482369000 Model 82369,%20Testers%20&%20Accessories&psid=YAHOOSHOP01&sid=IDx20070921x00003b

Digital clamp-on ammeter. Measures AC/DC current up to 400 amps with 3.0 percent (VAC) accuracy without breaking the circuit. Also measures AC/DC voltage, resistance, frequency, capacitance, continuity and diode. Type K thermometer allows for surface or air temperature measurements. Display is an extra large 4000 count LCD screen. Also includes one-touch auto zero, belt holster, molded rubber holster, auto on/off, test leads and thermocouple.

Bob Campbell

I love the smell of HHO in the morning.

Stainless Steel Power Terminal Posts

When I bought bolts to make my first wet cell I bought all stainless steel. That makes a lot of sense to me because those bolts (even the terminal posts) were going to be in the electrolyte.

Today while experimenting with the computer power supplies I happened to touch one of the terminal posts to the cell. It was HOT! I mean it burned my finger. Right away I start thinking it had a bad connection. Nope the connection was good. Then I put an ohm meter from the top of the bolt to the bottom and found 0.2 Ohms.

At 15 amps that 0.2 ohms was robbing my system of 45 watts and causing my cell to have less voltage than it could and should have.

It turns out that stainless steel is not a very good conductor of current. I hate to think about this, but many of my experiments over the past two months have had voltage reading taken at the terminal where this voltage drop would have been over looked. My data has been compromised and I will now have to do many of my tests over after replacing the bolts with ordinary steel. The good news is that my mmw will probably improve when I install the new bolts.

Here's a link to my YouTube video showing th heat lost at a bolt.

Pulling my hair out!
Bob Campbell

I love the smell of HHO in the morning.

Computer Power Supplies Revisited

I got up this morning, and had a thought about the power supplies I was working with yesterday. Could one of them be weak? Well I grabbed a spare computer and ran it out to the shop. One of the four was bad so that seemed like something to look into. I replaced each of the supplies one at a time, and found this to be exactly what went wrong. After replacing a weak supply, I was pushing 15A at 13.4v.

But I'm still not happy with this configuration. These power supplies protect them selves very well, and I appreciate that but when you are using three of them and have to reset - well it's a pain in the rear.

Bob Campbell

I love the smell of HHO in the morning.

Saturday, August 30, 2008

Panacea - a site for imaginative and thinking people

If you are reading my blog then I think I've found a somewhat unrelated site you will enjoy. Here it is -

HHO Cell Design

Tight plate spacing reduces the amount of electrolyte required. I've been using 40 mills but I'd like to experiment with 10 mills. I have not found 40 mil to be too restrictive and found no advantage to 80 mil gaskets.

Plate thickness is probably a mute point, but thin gauge can bend and cause a short with very thin gaskets. Even so, I prefer the thinnest gauge in order to save space, weight, and cost. The electrical resistance of the plates may be something to consider. Stainless Steel has more resistance than ordinary steel. In the future I may make a test generator with connections at both ends of the plate to see if this would have any affect. My guess is that it would not.

I can't say first hand but many people seem to think 316 SS is a better choice than 304 SS. I have not seen any tests to prove this and I have been using 304 because it's softer and easier to machine.

I like dry cells as opposed to wet cell generators because there is no side current leakage and I believe it is easier to build without wasting space. There is also very little excess HHO in the electrolyzer at any time, which lowers the danger of the electrolyzer exploding from a spark. On that note - When building a wet cell be sure to make all electrical connections very tight, as a spark inside would be very dangerous.

Bob Campbell
I love the smell of HHO in the morning.

Power Supplies

Yesterday I took three of the computer power supplies I got the other day for $10 each, and hooked the +5v outputs in series. This created a total of 14v. The lowest rated output of any of the supplies was 25 amperes on the +5v output. But I was not able to deliver that amperage with this setup and the voltage was drawn down to 12.4v and 9 amps. It was very disappointing. I suppose this idea could work with larger power supplies but the ones I have are of the 250 watt vintage and I’m not willing to invest any more into this concept right now. Besides six supplies would make a big power supply box. Seboy2000 on YouTube tells me that he is happy using his 550W supply in the 12v mode.

For anyone who wants to go this route, I did find a site that has 500 watt and even larger power supplies for a very reasonable cost of less than $20 each. Take a look at

And here is a company that sells power supplies for $208 that are rated at 13.6V 30A Continuous. Look for the PST-APS30 power supply listed on this page.

So I haven’t decided what I’m going to do. I borrowed my neighbor’s Vector: VEC1093A - 2/10/20/40/100 Amp 12V Smart Battery Charger and it worked out very nicely.

I ran it up to 18 amps at 14 volts and got 1.3 LPM. That’s 5.17 mmw. I then hooked it up parallel to two 12v batteries in my truck and ran it for about 15 minutes. The “Smart” charger did not mess up the volts or current.

I’m pretty happy with the performance of this charger. It costs about $120.00 and as an extra bonus it does a lot of diagnosis of the alternator and battery systems. I’m feeling inclined to go this route, but I had hoped to get by with a less costly method.

Bob Campbell
I love the smell of HHO in the morning.

Thursday, August 28, 2008


I've been using the KHO today and feel quite strongly that KOH is the way to go. After about four hours the solution looks clear. I added 2 tsp per gallon and got very good production with efficency of 4.5 to 4.8 mmw for my Gen 3 dry cell. Below is a link of a previous test of that cell with Na HO

Wednesday, August 27, 2008


Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Potassium hydroxide (KOH) are better than Baking Soda (Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate - NaHCO3) because they are a better conductor. Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, or pickling lime, Ca(OH))2 works but it builds a foamy cake in the bubbler which is detremantal to the maintenance of the electrolizer, and it is not as good a conductor as NaOH or KOH.

Draino is a source of sodium hydroxide but I get a lot of foam. Foaming lowers the efficiency. Besides I think it has a few extra chemicals that are not condusive to HHO

Baking soda is good because it is not toxic but it is not as good a conductor as KOH or (NaOH). KOH is most likely the best choice because it is a very good conductor, and I've heard it leaves no residue, but it is toxic. Use it wisely. I have 90% KOH on order and will report back on my results later.

Bob Campbell

Power Supplies

It's my lucky day! I went on craigslist to find some computer power supplies and found 4 at $10.00 each. I've been unhappy with my new battery charger - one of those "smart chargers" because it does not supply a constant 13.6v. Here are some sites that will help you build a power supply for cheap.

Power supply tips!

How to Add Variable Voltage to Your ATX Based Bench Power Supply

Cheep 400W power Supplies

HHO Plate Size Matters

A larger plate area produces more gas and appears to be directly proportional to surface area. Preliminary testing results in a constant of about .275 milliliters per minute per watt per 100 square inches at about 4.5 mmw. More testing needs to be done to verify the accuracy of that constant. But without a doubt a larger plate area produces more gas.Larger can be achieved either by adding cells or by using larger plates. One cell being any array beginning with a positive and ending with a negative plate, such as +nnnnn-.My theory is that too much HHO can be detrimental to the miles per gallon achieved. HHO works because it is a fuel additive, and creating too much HHO will waste electrical energy due to the alternators load on the engine. It may even have a negative influence on the timing of the fuel detonation. The important factor is the efficiency. More on that later

Affordable Clamp on AC/DC Meter

For all of you experimenters who still need an accurate way to measure DC amps, I've just discovered that Sears has a reasonably priced AC/DC Clamp on multimeter. $60.00

Digital clamp-on ammeter. Measures AC/DC current up to 400 amps with 3.0 percent (VAC) accuracy without breaking the circuit. Also measures AC/DC voltage, resistance, frequency, capacitance, continuity and diode. Type K thermometer allows for surface or air temperature measurements. Display is an extra large 4000 count LCD screen. Also includes one-touch auto zero, belt holster, molded rubber holster, auto on/off, test leads and thermocouple.

I hope they have it in stock at our store in Chico. I'm going to pick one up today!Now if I could just find a power supply

My latest HHO generator

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